Carotid artery Disease Assessed by Color Doppler Flow Imaging: Comparison between Smokers and Non-Smokers Patients

Ume Kalsoom Attique, Syed Muhammad Yousaf Farooq, Areeba Mahmood, Hamna Areej, Hafiz Muhammad Abrar-ul-Hassan, Muhammad Usama Tahir, Lina Khaled Jallad


Most frequently, people with renal insufficiency and smokers will both have carotid artery disease. When compared to non-smokers, smokers have a higher incidence of carotid artery stenosis. Moreover, smoking has been connected to the development of high-risk atheroma as well as an increase in carotid intima media thickness in an elderly population. Extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis higher than 50% is linked to around 8–15% of ischemic strokes [2].



To compare the color Doppler findings for assessment of carotid artery disease in smokers and non-smokers.



A cross-sectional study was performed on 120 patients, with clinically suspected carotid artery disease at the university ultrasound clinic, Green town Lahore by Doppler ultrasonography (Toshiba XARIO XG), with linear probe of 5-7.5 MHz frequency used. The data was analyzed with the help of SPSS version 25.0. Variables like age and Intima-media thickness were reported and the mean ± standard deviation of pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, and end diastolic velocity were calculated. An independent t-test was applied with a significant p-value, which was less than 0.05.




Data was collected from 120 patients. The mean ± SD of age of 120 patients were 43.10 ± 14.44 years. IMT of right carotid artery and PSV of right and left carotid artery, were observed to be statistically significant in smokers and non- smokers.



This study concluded that smoking is considered as one of the most important risk factor that shows a significant association with carotid IMT thickening.


(Carotid artery disease; carotid artery stenosis; carotid plaque; smoking; Ultrasonography; vascular ultrasound).

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